1. Lea, J. M., Kerley, G. I., Hrabar, H., Barry, T. J., & Shultz, S. (2016). Recognition and management of ecological refugees: A case study of the Cape mountain zebra. Biological Conservation203, 207-215.
  2. Smolla, M., Alem, S., Chittka, L., & Shultz, S. (2016). Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable. Biology Letters12(6), 20160188.
  3. Elisa, M., Shultz, S., & White, K. (2016). Impact of surface water extraction on water quality and ecological integrity in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology54(2), 174-182.
  4. Malan, G., Strydom, E., Shultz, S., & Avery, G. (2016). Diet of nesting African Crowned Eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus in emerging and forest–savanna habitats in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ostrich, 1-9.


  1. Edwards, K. L., Walker, S. L., Dunham, A. E., Pilgrim, M., Okita-Ouma, B., & Shultz, S. (2015). Low birth rates and reproductive skew limit the viability of Europe’s captive eastern black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis michaeli. Biodiversity and Conservation24(11), 2831-2852.
  2. Edwards, K. L., Shultz, S., Pilgrim, M., & Walker, S. L. (2015). Irregular ovarian activity, body condition and behavioural differences are associated with reproductive success in female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). General and comparative endocrinology214, 186-194.
  3. Edwards, K. L., Shultz, S., Pilgrim, M., & Walker, S. L. (2015). Male reproductive success is correlated with testosterone in the eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). General and comparative endocrinology213, 40-49.
  4. Maslin, M. A., Shultz, S., & Trauth, M. H. (2015). A synthesis of the theories and concepts of early human evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B370(1663), 20140064.
  5. Smolla, M., Gilman, R. T., Galla, T., & Shultz, S. (2015, September). Competition for resources can explain patterns of social and individual learning in nature. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 282, No. 1815, p. 20151405). The Royal Society.
  6. Shultz, S., & Gersick, A. S. (2015). The evolution of signaling complexity: a comment on Sheehan and Bergman. Behavioral Ecology, arv155.


  1. Opie, C., Shultz. S., Atkinson, Q., Curry, T., Mace, R. (in press) Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges main sequence theory of human social evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  2. Maslin, M. A., Brierley, C. M., Milner, A. M., Shultz, S., Trauth, M. H., & Wilson, K. E. (2014). East African climate pulses and early human evolution. Quaternary Science Reviews101, 1-17.
  3. Opie, C., Atkinson, Q., Dunbar, R.I.M. and S. Shultz (2014) Reply to Dixon.
  4. Opie, C., Atkinson, Q. D., Dunbar, R. I., & Shultz, S. (2014). Reply to Lukas and Clutton-Brock: Infanticide still drives primate monogamy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(17), E1675-E1675.
  5. Edwards, K. L., Shultz, S., Pilgrim, M., & Walker, S. L. (2014). Irregular ovarian activity, body condition and behavioural differences are associated with reproductive success in female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). General and comparative endocrinology. Online only
  6. Penkunas, M. J., Coss, R. G., & Shultz, S. (2014). Risk Assessment by British Children and Adults. International Journal of Psychological Studies6(3), p32.


  1. Shultz, S. & Maslin, M. (2013) Early human speciation, dispersal and brain expansion forced by East African climate pulses. PlosOne (publication date 16.10.13).
  2. Opie, C., Atkinson, Q., Dunbar, R.I.M., Shultz, S. (2013). Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(33), 13328-13332.
  3. Edwards, K., Walker, S., Bodenham, R., Ritchie, H. & Shultz, S (2013). Associations between social behaviour and adrenal activity in female Barbary macaques: Consequences of study design. General and Comparative Endocrinology 186, 72-9.
  4. Laidre, M., Lamb, A., Shultz, S. & Olsen, M (2013). Making sense of information in noisy networks: human communication, gossip, and distortion. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 317, 152-60.


  1. Shultz, S., Nelson, E., Dunbar, R.I.M. (2012) Hominin cognitive evolution: identifying patterns and processes from the fossil and archaeological record. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367: 2130-40.
  2. Stanley, C. & Shultz, S. (2012) Mummy’s boys: maternal protectiveness as a response to colt directed aggression in semi-feral horses. Behaviour. 149: 251-274.
  3. Opie, C., Atkinson, Q. & Shultz, S (2012). The evolutionary history of primate mating systems. Communicative & Integrative Biology 5: 0-1.
  4. Salido-Grana, L., Purse, B.V., Marrs, R., Chamberlain, D. and Shultz, S. (2012) Flexibility in phenology and habitat use act as buffers to long-term population declines in UK passerines. Ecography 34:1-10.


  1. Shultz, S., Opie, K., Atkinson, Q. (2011) Stepwise evolution of stable sociality in primates. Nature 479: 219-222.
  2. Nelson, E., Campbell, R., & Shultz, S. (2011) Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early Modern Humans but not in Australopithecus. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 278: 1556-1563.


  1. Shultz, S. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2010a) Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals but is associated with sociality. PNAS 107: 21582-21586.
  2. Shultz, S. & Finlayson, L.V. (2010) Predator diet choices are associated with prey life history and behavioural characteristics in terrestrial mammal communities. Behavioural Ecology 21: 1073-1079.
  3. Nelson, E., Hoffman, C., Gerald, M., & Shultz, S. (2010) Digit ratio (2D:4D) and female dominance rank in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 1001-1009.
  4. Shultz, S. & Dunbar, RIM (2010b) Species differences in executive function correlate with brain size across non-human primates. Journal of Comparative Psychology 124: 252-260.
  5. Lyons, M., Cadwell, T. & Shultz, S. (2010) Mind-reading and manipulation – is Machiavellianism related to theory of mind? Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 8: 261-274.
  6. Dunbar, R.I.M. & Shultz, S. (2010c) Bondedness and Sociality. Behaviour 147: 775-803.
  7. Nelson, E. & Shultz, S. (2010) Finger Length ratios (2D:4D) in Anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141: 395-405.
  8. Shultz, S., & Dunbar, RIM (2010d) Life-history, social bonding and adaptive peak shifts in avian brain evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 100: 111-123.


[Career break-maternity 2007-2008]

  1. Dunbar, R.I.M., Shultz, S. (2007) Evolution in the social brain. Science 317: 1344-1347
  2. Shultz, S., Dunbar, RIM (2007) The evolution of the social brain: anthropoid primates contrast with other vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 274: 2429-2436
  3. Perez-Barberia F.J., Shultz, S., Dunbar, RIM (2007) Correlated evolution of brain size and sociality in mammals. Evolution 612811-2821.   
  1. Taggart M A, Cuthbert R, Das D, Sashikumar C, Pain D J, Green R E, Feltrer Y, Shultz S, Cunningham A A and Meharg A A (2007) Diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat with reference to Gyps vulture population declines. Environmental Pollution 147: 60-65.
  2. Dunbar, R.I.M. and Shultz, S (2007) Understanding primate brain evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.362:649-658.
  3. McGraw, W.S., Cooke, C., Shultz, S. (2006) Primate remains from crowned-eagle nests (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in Ivory Coast’s Taï Forest: implications for South African cave taphonomy. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 131: 151-165.
  4. Swan, G.E., Cuthbert, R., Quvedo, M., Green, R.E., Pain, D.J., Bartels, P., Cunningham, A.A., Duncan, N., Meharg, A.A., Oaks, J.L., Parry-Jones, J., Shultz, S., Taggart, M.A., Verdoon, G., Wolter, K. (2006) Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures. Biology Letters 2: 279-282.
  5. Shultz, S. Dunbar, R.I.M. (2006) Both social and ecological factors predict ungulate brain size. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B273: 207-215
  6. Shultz, S. Bradbury, R, Evans, K, Gregory, R, Blackburn, T (2005) Brain size and resource specialisation predict long-term population trends in British birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B. 272: 2305-2311
  7. Shultz, S. Baral, H.S., Charman, S., Cunningham, A.A., Das, D., Ghalsasi, G.R., Goudar, M.S., Green, R.E., Jones, A., Nighot, P., Pain, D.J., & Prakash, V. (2004a) Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B (suppl). 271: S458-460.
  8. Green, R.E., Ian Newton, I., Shultz, S., Baral, H.S., Cunningham, A.A., Gilbert, M., Pain, D.J., & Prakash, V. (2004) Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 793-800.
  1. Shultz, S. and Dunbar , R.I.M. (2006) Chimpanzee and felid diet is influenced by prey brain size. Biology. Letters 2: 505-508.
  1. Shultz, S., Noë, R., McGraw, W.S. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2004b) A community-level evaluation of the impact of prey behavioural and ecological characteristics on predator diet composition. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 271: 725-732.
  2. Shultz, S. (2004) Monkeys, movement, and math: can quantitative models help our understanding of primate dispersal patterns? Primate Report 68: 93-95.
  3. Shultz, S., Faurie, C., & Noë, R. (2003) Behavioural responses of Diana monkeys to male long-distance calls: changes in ranging, association patterns, and activity. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 53: 238-245.
  4. Shultz, S. & Noë, R. (2002) The consequences of crowned eagle central-place foraging on predation risk in monkeys. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 269: 1797-1802.
  5. Gaubert, P., Veron, G., Colyn, M., Dunham, A., Shultz, S. & M. Tranier. (2002) A reassessment of the distributional range of the rare Genetta johnstoni (Viverridae, Carnivora), with some newly discovered specimens. Mammal Review 32: 132-144.
  6. Malan, G. & Shultz, S. (2002) Nest site selection of the Crowned Eagle in the forests of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Journal of Raptor Research. 36: 300-308.
  7. Shultz, S. (2002) Population density, breeding chronology and diet of crowned eagles in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Ibis 144: 135-139.
  8. Shultz, S. (2001) Notes on interactions between crowned eagles and monkeys in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Folia Primatologica 72: 248-250.

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